The Charters of Freedom - A New World is at Hand  
back Declaration of Independence
view a larger image of the Declaration of Independence you are here download high-resolution images of the Declaration of Independence more Declaration of Independence resources
Printer-Friendly Version

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription


IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. 
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:

Column 1
Georgia:
   Button Gwinnett
   Lyman Hall
   George Walton

Column 2
North Carolina:
   William Hooper
   Joseph Hewes
   John Penn
South Carolina:
   Edward Rutledge
   Thomas Heyward, Jr.
   Thomas Lynch, Jr.
   Arthur Middleton

Column 3
Massachusetts:
John Hancock
Maryland:
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia:
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton

Column 4
Pennsylvania:
   Robert Morris
   Benjamin Rush
   Benjamin Franklin
   John Morton
   George Clymer
   James Smith
   George Taylor
   James Wilson
   George Ross
Delaware:
   Caesar Rodney
   George Read
   Thomas McKean

Column 5
New York:
   William Floyd
   Philip Livingston
   Francis Lewis
   Lewis Morris
New Jersey:
   Richard Stockton
   John Witherspoon
   Francis Hopkinson
   John Hart
   Abraham Clark

Column 6
New Hampshire:
   Josiah Bartlett
   William Whipple
Massachusetts:
   Samuel Adams
   John Adams
   Robert Treat Paine
   Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:
   Stephen Hopkins
   William Ellery
Connecticut:
   Roger Sherman
   Samuel Huntington
   William Williams
   Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:
   Matthew Thornton

Learn about Our National Treasure, interesting and informative facts about the Declaration and its history.

 
top of page Print/Bookmark/Share
Privacy Accessibility Contact NARA Search NARA Home Page
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html.
 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Us_declaration_independence.jpg

| Fundamentele mensenrechten voor kinderen en gezinnen in Nederland | Stop de Kinderroof en Maak Nederland Humaan!Petitie en brief | Fundamentele mensenrechtenschendingen van kinderen en gezinnen in Nederland | Correcties bij Stop de Kinderroof! | Sven Snijer : "Uithuisplaatsen Stap voor Stap" | Schoolplicht versus Leerrecht | Wat is OORvoorU? | Wat is OOR4U? | Wat is zondebokdenken? | 25 dingen die je moet weten voordat je je kind in Nederland op een school inschrijft | Anti pestprogramma's op scholen verergeren pestgedrag vaak juist | Opdracht voor opstel lijkt wel kruisverhoor | GGD vragenlijst als manier om jeugdzorg klantjes te werven | Wat zeggen deskundigen over thuisonderwijs? | Wat zegt de Overheid? | AD 17 december 2014 | Leerkrachten stappen massaal uit het gangbare onderwijs, omdat ze datgene wat van overheidswege van ze geeist wordt niet kunnen rijmen met het beste belang van het kind | Afgekeurde scholen | Klokkenluiders en mensen die opkomen voor kinderen en gezinnen worden door gemeenten hun huis uitgepest | Sluiting onderzoekscentrum LOOK | Waar gaat er dan wel geld naar toe? | Gesloten scholen | Ouders die het beste onderwijs voor hun kinderen willen worden in Nederland strafrechtelijk vervolgd.Een voorbeeld van hoe zo'n strafzitting verloopt. De Afwezigheid van Vrijheid van Onderwijs in Nederland haalt de internationale pers. | Verzamelde acties van organisaties en individuen tegen de schending van fundamentele mensenrechten van kinderen en gezinnen in Nederland | Sailing for Education | Voor alle moeders die op moederdag niet bij hun kinderen mogen zijn | Connect acties | Conceptpetitie Vrijheid van Onderwijs en Waarborging van de Fundamentele Mensenrechten van Alle Kinderen en Gezinnen in Nederland voor de Optimale Ontwikkeling van Ieder Kind! | Conceptpetitie Stop de Kinderroof! | Conceptpetitie 2 Stop de Kinderroof! | Stop TPP, TTIP, CETA en IFDF! | Vermiste Kinderen | Kinderen in jeugdtehuizen en pleeggezinnen worden drie tot vier keer vaker seksueel misbruikt dan jongeren die thuis wonen. | Hulp aan slachtoffers van fundamentele mensenrechtenschendingen door instellingen | Lijsten waarmee gewerkt wordt om risico kindermishandeling te bepalen | Help ze helpen | Werkverschaffing binnen de jeugdzorg, hoe gaat dat? | Martin Vrijland:Jeugdzorgmedewerker komt uit de kast | Operatie Exodus | Wat wil Nederland? Waarborging van Fundamentele Mensenrechten, of Meer van?t Zelfde? | Brandbrief van lotgenoten van de Commissie Samson | Het kan ook anders, het kan ook beter! Scholen die goed bezig zijn, het nieuwe leren en schoolconcepten die in ontwikkeling zijn | WOWcollege | Neil de Grasse Tyson | Homeschooling legality and statistics per country | Ouderinitiatieven worden de grond in geboord door besturen , een voorbeeld: School Zoekt ZUS | Tweede mislukte ouderinitiatiefKOOG, conceptpetitie | Informatieve links | Inspirerende links | Einstein citaten | Einstein op thema | Martin Luther King dag | Martin Luther King citaten | Tesla | Alfie Kohn, Mensen zijn van nature niet aggressief | OORvoorU blogs op uvrm.wordpress | Hoogbegaafden | Gezellige Gezinnen | Wonderkinderen | Vervolgde Gezinnen | In Jeugdzorgkinderen blikt een voormalig jeugdzorgkind terug op zijn jeugd en vertelt hoe het is om als volwassene te leven met een jeugdzorgverleden | Uithuisplaatsingen zijn slecht voor kinderen. Dat zie je ook weer aan deze foto's | Hans en Irme | De hel die jeugdzorg heet | Sylvano | Kinderen mishandelen wordt protocol genoemd in jeugdzorginstellingen | Voor Sylvano | TjW Strubbe Zaak Silvano, 2014, als voorbeeld over de attitude van ?jeugdzorg? | Stentor 29 september 2014 Sylvano" "Zeg tegen mamma Dat Alles weer Goedkomt." | Spectrum 1 november 2014 "Sylvano, zijn moeder en het netwerk." | NRC artikel Sylvano 8 december 2014 | Stentor 24 december 2014 Sylvano viert kerst met zijn moeder | Artikel Lukretia en Rafael in tijdschrft "Vriendin" September 2014 | Remzi Cavdar | Kamp Nederland | Politiek | Declaration of Independence | Nuremberg Principles | UVRM Universele Verklaring van de Rechten van de Mens | Universal Declaration of Human Rights | Hoe is de UVRM ontstaan? | De EVRM Het Europese Verdrag van de Rechten van de Mens | Handvest van de Grondrechten van de Europese Unie | Europese Verdragen | Internationaal Verdrag van de Rechten van het Kind | De internationale verklaring van Langeac over gelijkwaardig ouderschap | De Nederlandse Grondwet | De bron van de ongebreidelde mensenrechtenschendingen in Nederland: Artikel 120 van de grondwet en artikel 2 van de EVRM | Het opheffen van artikel 120 van de grondwet is heel dichtbij | Wetsvoorstel Femke Halsema 8 maart 2010 om artikel 120 van de grondwet te wijzigen, de verdediging waarvan overgenomen is door Liesbeth van Tongeren | Artikel 120 van de Nederlandse Grondwet | Wetsvoorstel Femke Halsema 8 maart 2010 om artikel 120 van de grondwet te wijzigen met de artikelen van de grondwet waarop rechters wetten en regels mogen toetsen | Verslag met reaktie 2de kamer van 20 oktober 2010 op voorstel Femke Halsema tot aanpassing artikel 120 op 8 maart 2010 | Verdediging van Liesbeth van Tongeren van aanpassing artikel 120 , 20 augustus 2014 | Eigen opmerkingen n.a.v. de verdediging van Liesbeth van Tongeren op de aanpassing van artikel 120 van de Nederlandse grondwet | Vraagtekens bij handelwijze aanpassing artikel 120 | Voorstel Joost Taverne tot aanpassing artikel 93 en 94 van de grondwet, 6 september 2012 | The Dutch law on custody of children | Dit is de klacht waarmee het kinderrechten collectief 24 september 2014 naar Geneve is gegaan en wat 27 mei 2015 op de agenda staat om behandeld te worden | Wat is Trias Politica? | Discussie eerste kamer bij totstandkoming artikel 279 en 280 wetboek van strafrecht | Beroepsgegevens en nevenbetrekkingen Rechterlijke Machtgina | Repliek OvJ | "All wars are bankers wars,"interessant, maar creëert helaas ook weer nieuwe zondebokken | Green peace:De zeven gouden regels van actie voeren | Burgerlijke ongehoorzaamheid | Helden | John Taylor Gatto | Nelson Mandela | Professor Arnold Heertje, Held! | Lange Frans, Kamervragen 2 | Jeugd en gezin 24 december 2014: Jeugdhulpverlenen zonder toestemming van de ouders | Darkhorse blogspot over misstanden bureau jeugdzorg | Micky Nijboer, de paarden redster van Marrum | Gehackt | De OORvoorU website werd gehackt; en de heldere uitleg die ik gaf over de stand van zaken wat betreft de schoolplicht werd vervangen door deze;een oude van mijn uvrm site, genaamd "Vrijheid van Onderwijs:Geen Schoolplicht maar Leerrecht voor de Optim | January 7th 2015 , grief and determination to stand strong for universal liberties | Franktijk heeft pijn | Inspirerende Initiatieven om de aarde mooi te houden en nog mooier te maken

Laatste wijziging op: 31-05-2014 22:53